publicationISIS Books Published from 1985-1989

 


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO UNEMPLOYMENT IN MALAYSIA
By R. Thillainathan
1989 22pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 9667-947-087-3

In this paper, the writer discusses the major economic changes in the Malaysian economy in the early and mid-eighties and how they have contributed to the unemployment problem. He analyses recent developments in the labour market and offers suggestions on how to tackle the unemployment problem. The writer is general manager and chief executive of Bank Buruh and is considered one of Malaysia 's top economists.

THE SITUATION IN CHINA:
Causes and consequences
By Robert A Scalapino
1989 8pp PM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-092-X

In this concise and balanced paper presented shortly after the June 4 killings in Tiananmen Square, Prof Robert A Scalapino presents an assessment of both the deep-rooted reasons behind the tragedy and the broader implications it holds for China. He warns of two major crises that cannot be avoided in China - the crisis of leadership and crisis of policy - and concludes with observations about China 's current position in the world and Sino-American relations.

THE CAMBODIAN CONFLICT: 1978-1989
By Mohamed Noordin Sopiee
1989 27pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-094-6

This wide-ranging analysis of the Cambodia conflict by ISIS Director General Dr Noordin Sopiee was first presented at the Third Asia-Pacific Roundtable. It has been revised to take into account the rapid developments taking place that have substantially improved the prospects for a solution to this longstanding dispute. Issues discussed include: the positive factors affecting the prospects for a resolution; negative factors working against national reconciliation; and the possible endgame scenarios that are likely to emerge.

THE PACIFIC COMMUNITY PROCESS
By H Edward English
1989 9pp RM3.00/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-104-7

What is the formula for a successful Pacific Community? According to the writer, three questions are fundamental if consensus is to be reached on the Pacific formula. They are:

  • What is the Pacific and who belongs to the region?
  • What can and should the Pacific countries be doing together? What are their shared priorities? and
  • What formal institutions are likely to contribute to the achievement of those priorities?
The writer is professor of economics at Carleton University , Canada , and an acknowledged expert in international trade and business.

THE OUTBREAK OF PEACE:
Illusion or reality?
1989 12pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-096-2

Is there a strong peace momentum in the world that promises the end of the great age of confrontation? Four distinguished panelists from the Asia-Pacific discuss this issue and conclude that while there are some positive signs, the verdict is still one of cautious optimism. The panelists are Senator Leticia Shahani, Chairperson, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Philippines; Prof Robert Scalapino, Director, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, United States; Dr Cennady Chufrin, Deputy Director, Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, Soviet Union; and Yoshiji Nogamai, Executive Director, Japan Institute of International Affairs, Japan. ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee chaired the forum.

SOUTHEAST ASIA BEYOND CAMBODIA
1989 13pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-097-0

How will Southeast Asia be in the post-Cambodia era? In discussing this issue, panelists agree that there will be tremendous opportunities and new ideas for cooperation. The panelists are Prof Lau Teik Soon, Head of Political Science Department, National University of Singapore; Senator Leticia Shahani, Chairperson, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, the Philippines; and Sabam Siagian, Chief Editor, The Jakarta Post, Indonesia. ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee chaired this forum.

CAMBODIA:
How near to peace?
1989 17pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-097-0

This forum to explore the so-called 'end' to the Cambodian problem shows that the panelists are generally agreed on what constitute the obstacles to peace in that country. Led by ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee, the panelists are Congressman Jose de Venecia, Chairman, House Committee on Foreign Relations, the Philippines; Max Soliven, Publisher and Chairman of the Editorial Board, The Philippine Star; Sabam Siagian, Chief Editor, The Jakarta Post, Indonesia; and HE Cavan Hogue, the Australia's High Commissioner to Malaysia.

JAPAN AND SOUTHEAST ASIA:
Threat or opportunity?
1989 12pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-099-7

The increasing role of Japan in the region is seen as both a blessing and a bane although the panelists conclude that the balance is towards the side of opportunity. Panelists are Max Soliven, Publisher and Chairman of the Editorial Board, The Philippine Star; HE Tran Quang Co, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vietnam ; Dr Kazuo Takahashi, Programme Director, Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan ; and Sabam Siagian, Chief Editor, The Jakarta Post, Indonesia . ISIS Director General Dr Noordin Sopiee chaired the forum.

BUILDING CONFIDENCE, RESOLVING CONFLICT
Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Roundtable
Edited by Muthiah Alagappa
1989 155pp RM22.00/US$11.00 (sc) ISBN 967-947-090-3
RM35.00/US$17.50 (hc) ISBN 967-947-091-1 (no stock)

This volume comprising the keynote address and the seven papers presented at the Second Asia-Pacific Roundtable in Kuala Lumpur from July 1-4, 1988, gives a roundup of views and perceptions of various Pacific countries on the following issues:

  • Prospects for big power rapprochement in the Pacific
  • Dynamics of the arms build-up and prospects for arms control in the Pacific
  • Relevance of the European experiences for the Asia-Pacific region
  • Confidence building and conflict reduction in Northeast and Southeast Asia and the South Pacific; and
  • The Cambodian conflict.

THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS:
Where do we go from here?
By Malcolm Fraser
1988 14pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-063-6

The facts speak for themselves. With 32 million unemployed in the OECD countries alone, wild currency fluctuations, trade frictions between the US and Japan, and Japan and the EC, debt problems and historically low commodity prices, there is no doubt that the world is facing an economic crisis. What has gone wrong? To answer this, former Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser traces world history from post-World War II days to the present to find the causes before he postulates the possible triggers that could lead to a breakdown of the system.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN CRISIS:
Why the bell of apartheid tolls for everyone
By Shridath S Ramphal
1988 17pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967~947-064-4

Commonwealth Secretary-General Sir Shridath S Ramphal explains why the Commonwealth is in the forefront of the international struggle against apartheid and what it has done. He also answers the question 'Why does apartheid persist?' Finally he proposes a global five-point response to Botha's 'crackdown' on peaceful change in South Africa.

CONSUMPTION AND TRADE-RELATED TAXES IN MALAYSIA
By Ismail Md Salleh
1988 36pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-062-8

Besides discussing consumption and trade~related taxes in Malaysia, this paper also traces, in brief, the trend of taxation from 1960-87. The changing pattern of direct and indirect taxes are analysed in terms of their 'effort and reliance ratios' and the economic effects of taxes are evaluated in terms of the standard criteria of revenue productivity, equity and efficient resource allocation. Also included is an appendix detailing the justifications and administrative aspects of a value added tax for Malaysia in relation to the weaknesses and limitations of the existing tax structure, specifically the general sales tax.

KAMPUCHEA:
One way forward
By Mohamed Noordin Sopiee
1988 10pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-080-6

This paper presented just before the Jakarta Informal Meeting in July 1988 discusses 10 solutions to the Kampuchea problem and proposes a framework for 'a viable political settlement involving the establishment of a sovereign and reasonably independent, neutral, non-aligned, peaceful, stable and unthreatening Kampuchea'. The writer also sets out the necessary components of political settlement which could secure the conditions of viability, and a political critical path.

ALLIANCE OF THE PROXIES:
USSR-Vietnam relations and the implications
By Abdul Razak A Baginda and Rohana Mahmood
1988 40pp RM6.50/US$3.50 ISBN 967-947-056-3

Despite various strains underlying the Soviet-Vietnamese relationship, the Soviet Union and Vietnam have been important proxies for each other in the last decade. This paper traces the development of the relations between the two proxies, examines how and why the relationship has flowered and then looks at why this relationship matters to Southeast Asia .

SINO-JAPANESE-US MILITARY TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS
By William T Tow
1988 42pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-075-X

In this assessment of the politics of Sino-Japanese-US military technology relations, the writer delves into the implications of Japan's participation in the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI), high technology exports, defence buildup and military technology transfers. Sino American military technology relations are also discussed before the conclusion is drawn that the implications of Sino-Japanese-US high technology politics are ambiguous but far-reaching for the Asia-Pacifc general security environment. And to a significant degree, the process is clouded by indecision in Washington and Tokyo , and China 's tendency to manipulate both of them.

SOVIET POLICY TOWARDS THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION
By Igor A Rogachev
1988 25pp RM3.00/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-083-0

In this paper presented at an ISIS World Affairs Forum in April 1988, Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister lgor A Rogachev analyses the policies pursued by the Soviet Union in the Asia-Pacific and explains moves being made as part of the Soviet 'peace offensive' in the region. In discussions following the paper presentation, Mr Rogachev also tackles questions on issues such as Soviet relations with China , Kampuchea , the INF Treaty and ZOPFAN.

EAST ASIA IN TRANSITION:
The Asean factor
By Gaston J Sigur
1988 8pp RM3.00/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-084-9

This paper, delivered by US Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Gaston J. Sigur at an ISIS World Affairs Forum in Kuala Lumpur in 1988, discusses the political and security roles of the United States in a region that has undergone dynamic growth and transformation. Other topics discussed include the Asean phenomenon, US-Asean relations and US-Malaysian relations.

THE US, JAPAN & THE PACIFIC RIM:
Competition, co-operation and conflict
By Richard Drobnick
1988 15pp RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN 967-947-082-2

This paper written in 1988 discusses three key international economic questions he sees the Bush Administration having to reckon with in the coming years: America's need for foreign capital; reversal of the US trade deficit; and Japan's emergence as the principal source of international capital. However, instead of ending with a sombre list of conclusions to tackle these problems, the writer makes two sets of proposals, one for American leaders to improve America 's ability to manage an inevitable process of adjustment and the other for Asian leaders to prepare for the far-reaching implications of the major changes in the international economy.

DEBT STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
Future options
By Peter Nunnenkamp
1988 31pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-078-4

Dr Peter Nunnenkamp of the Kiel Institute of World Economics gives a candid assessment of the Third World debt problem in this paper, first delivered at an ISIS International Affairs Forum in July 1988. He argues that traditional debt relief is not feasible because the problem has become more structural in nature. Dr Nunnenkamp calls for serious attempts to consider alternative concepts as to how international financial relations can be structured more efficiently.

THE THAI ECONOMY:
Rebound and takeoff
By Bunyaraks Ninsananda
1988 11pp RM4.00/US$2.00 ISBN 967-947-081-4

Thailand's economic performance in the rnid-1980s, when economies worldwide were in the doldrums, has definitely been remarkable. But the picture was not always so rosy. In the early 1980s, Thailand had gone through its share of economic difficulties. This paper traces Thailand 's economic performance in the mid to late eighties and the sources and characteristics of its growth, to show how Thailand attained its economic achievements. Some of the constraints and development issues which must be tackled if the high growth is to be sustained are also discussed.

CONFLICT AND THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEACE IN THE PACIFIC
1988 12pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-076-8

Five distinguished personalities from all over the Asia~ Pacific discuss the issues of conflict in the Pacific Kampuchea, the Philippine insurgency and the US Japan trade conflict among others - and conclude that many factors are now contributing to the creation of peace. Participants of this forum are former Indonesian Foreign Minister Prof Mochtar Kusumaatmadja; Prof Robert Scalapino of the University of California , Berkeley ; Dr Cennady Chufrin of the Soviet Academy of Sciences; Ji Cuoxing of the Shanghai Institute for International Studies; and Dr Kazuo Takahashi of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan .

PEACE AND SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
1988 12pp RMS.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-077-6

The Kampuchean conflict and the Jakarta Informal Meeting, issues of paramount interest in Southeast Asia , come under the spotlight in this forum with three prominent Asean personalities giving their views on the subject. In the panel are former Indonesian Foreign Minister Prof Mochtar Kusumaatmadja who initially helped to show the way towards Bogor (where the JIM was held in July 1988); National University of Singapore's Dr Chin Kin Wah; and the Philippine Centre for Integrative and Development Studies Director Dr Carolina Hernandez.

IN SEARCH OF PEACE
Confidence building and conflict reduction in the Pacific
Edited by Muthiah Alagappa
1988 72pp PM17.00/US$8.50 (sc) ISBN 967-947-066-0
RM25.00/US$12.50 (hc) ISBN 967-947-070-9 (no stock)

The First Asia-Pacific Roundtable, was held in Kuala Lumpur from Jan 10-11, 1987. Participants were gathered from the Asean countries, Australia , Burma , China , Japan , Laos , New Zealand , North Korea , South Korea , the Soviet Union, the United States and Vietnam . This volume comprises the five papers presented at the Roundtable, together with an introduction to provide a perspective on the changing strategic environment in the Pacific.

MALAYSIA'S RICE POLICY:
A critical analysis
By Tan Siew Hoey
1987 70pp RM7.00/US$3.50 ISBN 967-947-047-4

Recent developments in the padi and rice industry have amply demonstrated the enormity of problems besetting the sector. A major contributory factor appears to be the pervasive intervention in the industry. This study traces the evolution of the rice policy against the context of the prevailing policy environment. The analysis covers the impacts of the policy on production and the redistributive goal and the efficiency of resource use in padi production. It also charts out the direction of the policy reform needed to facilitate structural adjustment in the industry.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOUTH-SOUTH CO-OPERATION
By Farooq Sobhan
1987 50pp RM8.00/US$4.00 ISBN 967-947-040-7

This analysis of the existing and feasible ways through which the South can achieve co-operation details the many options available and their merits. The writer also proposes recommendations for the better implementation of the Caracas Programme of Action and future directions of South-South co-operation.

THE PRIMACY OF ECONOMICS AND THE CENTRAL STRUGGLE OF OUR TIMES
By Mohamad Noordin Sopiee
1987 9pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-046-6

ISIS Director-General Dr Noordin Sopiee makes a case here for the Soviet Union and the United States to help build up a creative global interdependence. Pointing out that economics will increasingly be the primary determinant of history and that military power will have declining utility in the coming century, he argues the irrationally of the arms race at a time when both superpowers should be looking towards gaining superiority on the economic battlefield.

SECURITY ISSUES IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC
By Sir Ewan Jamieson
1987 l2pp RM2.50/US$1.50 ISBN 967-947-048-2

In this survey of the issues confronting the South Pacific -- a region where some dramatic changes have taken place recently -- the writer examines the effects of ANZUS disconnection, the withdrawal of the New Zealand battalion from Singapore, the coup in Fiji, the French connection, Maori activism, the Soviet impact and the American factor.

THE INTERNATIONAL DEBT CRISIS
1987 15pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-058-X

Three prominent members of the South Commission former Commonwealth Secretary-General Sir Shridath Ramphal, Ambassador of Mexico to the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic, Jorge Eduardo Navarrete and Third World Forum chairman Dr Ismail Sabri Abdalla - discuss the factors behind the debt crisis. Some possible solutions are proposed and the Mexican approach is discussed.

INDUSTRIAL R&D IN MALAYSIA:
Challenge and response
By Helen Sharmini Nesadurai
1986 48pp RM8.00/US$4.00 ISBN 967-947-000-8

With Malaysia having embarked on a new phase of industrialisation emphasising heavy, high-technology and resource-based industries, it is timely to examine the state of the nation's research and development programmes. This paper discusses the country's various research institutes and the problems facing them.

A CASE FOR A MALAYSIAN TRAVEL TAX
By Steven C M Wong
1986 26pp PM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-036-9

Growing foreign payment imbalances on the travel account have fanned widespread speculation in recent years about the possibility of a travel tax being imposed for Malaysia. This paper looks at the basic rationale for a travel tax and considers what it could achieve, before proposing some ways to impose this tax and target it towards selected groups of travellers.

EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS FOR MALAYSIA:
A survey of terrain
By Steven C M Wong and Mustafa Mohamed Najimudin
1986 26pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-034-2

While looking at the factors that will determine whether the growing numbers of working age Malaysians can be productively employed in the years to come, the writers pinpoint key influences on the present situation and identify probable directions and outcomes of labour market adjustments.

SELF-EVALUATION IN ENHANCING ORGANISATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY
By Chew Tow Yow
1986 25pp PM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-035~0

Proposing that the way to enhance organisational productivity is through self-evaluation, the writer looks at the task of instituting this from the perspective of the head of a public organisation. Planning and operational decisions that must be considered are highlighted.

US TRADE PREFERENCES FOR LDCS:
An Asean perspective
By Dilip Mukerjee
1986 32pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-033-4 (no stock)

This paper examines the GSP scheme by looking at its history and comparing it with other schemes. Objections raised by affected US interests, the changes made to the original scheme and the justifications given by the US administration are tackled before approaches that LDCs can adopt in negotiating with the US on the GSP scheme are suggested.

TWO VIEWS ON SUMMIT THREE
By Chin Kin Wah and Narciso G Reyes
1986 39pp KM6.50/US$3.50 ISBN 967-947-005-9

It is not without significance that 19 years after its creation Asean has held only two summits -- the first in Bali in 1976 and the second 18 months later in Kuala Lumpur. Two views on the third summit are presented in two papers on 'The question of a third Asean summit: Pros and cons, approaches and recommendation' and 'The Asean summit syndrome'.

FINANCE CO-OPERATION VIA HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
By Robert Chia Kay Guan
1986 26pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-029-6

In this assessment of some Asean financial institutions and regional measures taken to nurture financial cooperation, the writer argues that efforts to attain financial co-operation have not been fully explored. Areas to be considered in order to attain long-term financial market development objectives and their ramifications are examined.

ENERGY CO-OPERATION: STATUS AND OUTLOOK
By Rozali Mohamed Ali
1986 30pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-030-X

This paper provides not only an overall view of the status of prevailing Asean energy co-operation but also assessments of the energy economies of the six Asean
nations. The existing mechanisms for energy co-operation, their backgrounds and key areas of future co-operation are reviewed.

FOSTERING INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARKET FREEDOM AND CONSUMER EMANICIPATION
By Chong Li Choy
1986 18pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-027-X

While arguing against protectionism as a solution to the problem, the writer proposes that the way to make Asean industries more efficient and products more competitive is to free markets and enhance consumer emanicipation. The fundamental long-term needs of Asean industries are also pointed out.

THE THRUST TOWARDS SHIPPING COOPERATION
By G Naidu
1986 16pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-026-1

Although all the Asean countries are heavily dependent on trade, and hence, shipping, much of the region's shipping services are supplied by foreign sources. In this assessment of the situation, the writer suggests some steps Asean shippers and shipowners could take to further their interests.

TOWARDS A LIBERAL TRADE REGIME
By Ooi Guat Tin
1986 18pp RM7.00/US$3.50 ISBN 967-947-025-3

The writer examines some of the major problems and issues facing Asean countries in their efforts to promote greater intra-Asean trade. Attention is focussed on the effectiveness of preferential trading arrangements (PTAS) and whether other ways can be adopted to supplement the basic efforts of expanding trade within the grouping.

THE QUEST FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
By Anuwar Ali
1986 30pp RM7.50/US$4.00 ISBN 967-947-009-1

For developing countries wishing to industrialise, the quest for the technology needed to expand domestic technological capability is a challenge fraught with problems and constraints. In highlighting these problems and constraints, the writer also examines the trends of global technology transfer and the extent of co-operation.

SOUTH-SOUTH MONETARY ARRANGEMENTS IN THE BALANCE
By Andrew Sheng
1986 18pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-011-3

Although the opportunities for South-South co-operation in the international monetary system are not lacking, the realised areas of co-operation are still limited. While elaborating on the implications of this lack of co-operation, the writer identifies the pressure points of financial co-operation and the possible areas of co-operation reform.

SOUTH-SOUTH CO-OPERATION:
Bilateral, regional or global?
By Noor Adlan Yahayauddin
1986 12pp RM6.00/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-010-5

This paper examines the status of South-South co-operation and the point it has reached before considering approaches that could be adopted to achieve it.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT:
Obstacles and opportunities
By Wong Poh Kam
1986 35pp RM7.50/US$4.00 ISBN 967-947-008-3

Traditionally, direct foreign investment in the South nations has come from the industrially-advanced North nations and such investment is perceived as contributing to the present unequal North-South relationship.

This paper examines the possibility and merits of greater South-South co-operation as a strategic alternative to Northern dominance.

UNIVERSITY PLACES:
Options for a creative response
By Doh Joon Chien
1986 30pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947018-0

The problem of providing university places for Malaysian students is one which is becoming acute. Besides foreign education, this paper suggests that the country has to look for more creative solutions such as off-campus programmes, community colleges, open universities, and private universities to fulfil its requirements.

OIL PRICES:
Where do we go from here?
By Vahan Zanoyan
1986 11pp RM5.00/US$2.50 ISBN 967-947-001-6

This paper provides a background to the events in the international oil market just before the onset of the 1985/86 oil crisis. Although rapidly~changing developments overtook some predictions, the writer's ability to foresee the 'extreme scenario' which did result lends credence to some of the medium- and longer-term scenarios painted.

THE TIN CRISIS
By Gill Burke
1986 26pp RM5.50/US$3.00 ISBN 967-947-002-4

The writer delves into the history of previous tin agreements and the formation of the International Tin Council to seek some explanations to the crisis which faced the tin industry in 1985/86. The problems facing the ITC and the factors which brought about its downfall are also examined before worldwide effects likely to result from the chaotic situation are predicted.

THE VIETNAMISATION OF CAMBODIA
By J R Pouvatchy
1986 14pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-99974-9-9

In this analysis of the extent to which Cambodia has been 'Vietnamised', the writer delves into the historical relationship between Vietnam and Cambodia before Vietnam's 1979 invasion and the political motivation behind its Vietnamese policy towards its Khmer neighbours.

STRATEGIES FOR SMALL-STATE SURVIVAL
By Hans H Indorf
1985 54pp RM7.00/US$3.50 ISBN 967-99974-0-5

For small states at the circumference of superpower activity, the chief concern is survival. This paper suggests strategies in equity, co-operation, defence, leverage and trans~nationalism to help reduce conflict situations in small states and thus help ensure their survival.

LESSONS FROM THE CARIBBEAN BASIN INITIATIVE
By Dilip Mukerjee
1985 36pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-99974-6-4

This paper examines the background behind President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative and its impact on trade, investment and tourist flows from the US before proposing conclusions to be drawn from the new US readiness to create special economic relationships in pursuit of geopolitical objectives.

THE CONTINUING CRISIS IN THE PHILIPPINES
By Harold Crouch
1985 12pp RM4.50/US$2.50 ISBN 967-99974-1-3

Marcos' imposition of martial law in the Philippines in 1972 triggered off a chain of events which was to change Philippine politics. The writer traces the developments from 1972-75 for this insight into the Philippine crisis.

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